United States Public Law
Select Clauses from United States Public Law 103-150
Full text for UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAW 103-150
Joint Resolution to acknowledge the 100th anniversary of the January 17, 1893 overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai’i, and to offer an apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai’i.
Whereas, prior to the arrival of the first European in 1778, the Native Hawaiian people lived in a highly organized, self-sufficient, subsistent social system based on communal land tenure with a sophisticated language, culture and religion;
Whereas, from 1826 until 1893, the United States recognized the independence of the Kingdom of Hawai’i, extended full and complete diplomatic recognition to the Hawaiian government, and entered into treaties and conventions with the Hawaiian monarch to govern commerce and navigation in 1826, 1842, 1849, 1875 and 1887;
Whereas, the United States Minister thereupon extended diplomatic recognition to the provisional government that was formed by the conspirators without the consent of the Native Hawaiian people or the lawful government of Hawai’i and in violation of treaties between the two nations and of international law;
Whereas, the indigenous Hawaiian people never directly relinquished their sovereignty as a people or over their national lands to the United States, either through their monarchy or through a plebiscite or referendum;
[The Congress] expresses its commitment to acknowledge the ramifications of the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai’i in order to provide the proper foundation for reconciliation between the United States and the Native Hawaiian people.